2015

  1. Trade is Essential for Jobs

    - a Value Chain Perspective for Sweden

    How many jobs in Sweden are supported by trade, and how important are global value chains for jobs in the Swedish economy? This report examines how employment in Sweden is linked with international trade, capturing the relationship to both domestic and global value chains. The results show that nearly 30 per cent of jobs in Sweden are supported by trade. The majority of these jobs are in the services sectors, especially for suppliers to the exporting part of the economy. This means that trade barriers potentially hurt both employment in the exporting sector and, through domestic value chains, employment among domestic manufacturing and services suppliers.​

    During the past years, several databases have been published, connecting input-output tables with international trade. This creates new possibilities for analyses from a value chain perspective. In this report, the World Input Output Database (WIOD), including employment figures from its Socio-Economic Accounts, has been used. In this way, WIOD makes it possible to estimate e.g. how important Sweden's trade with the USA is for employment in Sweden.

  2. November 2015 | Publications | English

    From Competition to Convergence

    TTIP and the Evolution of Global Standards

    The EU and the US have in many areas built their regulatory systems in ways that create unnecessary differences in technical regulations, standards and conformity assessment procedures. Unnecessary divergence in regulations and standard do not only create trade barriers between the EU and the US, but also affects the development of global regulations and standards in a way that may hold back important solutions to global problems.

    In light of the ongoing TTIP negotiations, this report examines how the EU and the US have integrated their regulatory systems internationally. The report is based on three arenas: international standards, free trade agreements and areas not covered by regulatory cooperation. The report also explores a proposal on how the EU and the US can get their standardization systems to work closer together through the so-called Transatlantic Standards Approval Scheme (TSAS).

  3. October 2015 | Publications | English

    Changes in EU Anti-Dumping Practice

    - Required by WTO Rules

    Predictable practice in line with WTO rules is fundamental to EU trade policy. China's Protocol of Accession to the World Trade Organization requires the EU to stop using an alternative calculation method in anti-dumping investigations after December 2016.

  4. October 2015 | Publications | English

    Preventing Global Value Chains in Renewable Energy

    The Use of Non-Preferential Rules of Origin as an Indirect Trade Policy Instrument in the EU

    In recent years, the EU has tended to use its non-preferential rules of origin as an indirect trade policy instrument. When the complex reality has made it difficult to establish the non-preferential origin of products – due to global production and value chains – the EU list rules for the establishment of non-preferential origin have been amended or disregarded in order to facilitate the imposition of EU trade remedies. The products concerned by this approach are mainly renewable energy products – solar panels from China and bioethanol from the United States.

    This approach is not in line with the WTO Agreement on Rules of Origin that states that the use of non-preferential rules of origin as a direct or indirect trade policy instrument is not allowed. The report provides proposals for how the Delegated Act of the Union Customs Code might be amended in order to make this tendency less possible and less likely in the future. In this way, the EU would serve as an example with regard to the use of non-preferential rules of origin on a multilateral level.

  5. September 2015 | Publications | English

    The Right to Regulate in the Trade Agreement between the EU and Canada

    - and its implications for the Agreement with the USA

    In this report, the National Board of Trade analyses the wording of two CETA articles that are central to an IIA, which have historically been the most frequently featured in investment disputes, namely the articles on "fair and equitable treatment" and "expropriation". These articles are also the ones with the potentially greatest impact on the state's "right to regulate".

  6. May 2015 | Publications | English

    Regulatory Co-operation and Technical Barriers to Trade within Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

     A central question in the current trade negotiations between the EU and the U.S. is that of the regulations and requirements applied for industrial products. These regulations and requirements ensure that crucial policy interests, for example the environmental and human health concerns, are safeguarded. The EU and the U.S. have about the same levels of protection but their regulatory systems have been designed in a completely different ways. This creates unnecessary barriers to trade between the EU and the U.S.. Since both regulatory systems have been developed over a long period of time and are well established, regulatory coherence aspects related to legitimate objectives, such as health and safety, will become the more difficult to agree on.

    At the same time, TTIP offers an opportunity to address the differences in regulations that form disruptive barriers to world trade. The size and influence of the EU and the U.S. mean that agreements reached can influence the regulations of other countries, and thereby reduce the negative effect of differences in regulatory frameworks on international trade.

    This study is also available as a summary report : How TTIP can Address Technical Barriers to Trade - an Introduction

  7. May 2015 | Publications | English

    How TTIP can Address Technical Barriers to Trade

    - an Introduction

    A central question in the current trade negotiations between the EU and the U.S. is that of the regulations and requirements applied for industrial products. These regulations and requirements ensure that crucial policy interests, for example the environmental and human health concerns, are safeguarded. The EU and the U.S. have about the same levels of protection but their regulatory systems have been designed in a completely different ways. This creates unnecessary barriers to trade between the EU and the U.S.. Since both regulatory systems have been developed over a long period of time and are well established, regulatory coherence aspects related to legitimate objectives, such as health and safety, will become the more difficult to agree on.

    At the same time, TTIP offers an opportunity to address the differences in regulations that form disruptive barriers to world trade. The size and influence of the EU and the U.S. mean that agreements reached can influence the regulations of other countries, and thereby reduce the negative effect of differences in regulatory frameworks on international trade.

    This publication is the short version of the report Regulatory Co-operation and Technical Barriers to Trade within Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)

  8. May 2015 | Publications | Svenska

    Economic Effects of the European Single Market

    Review of the Empirical Literature

    For over 20 years have goods, services, capital and persons been able to move freely across the EU, at least on paper. But how does it work in practice, and how has it affected the European economy? The National Board of Trade has gathered the economic research on the subject.

    The development of the free movements of goods, services, capital and persons since the launch of the single market in the early 1990s, are presented in one chapter each. The study concludes with how this, in turn, has affected European economic integration and growth.

    This is the underlying literature review to our report Single Market, Four Freedoms, Sixteen Facts – Economic Effects in the EU.

  9. May 2015 | Publications | English

    Single Market, Four Freedoms, Sixteen Facts

    – Economic Effects in the EU

    For over 20 years have goods, services, capital and persons been able to move freely across the EU, at least on paper. But how does it work in practice, and how has it affected the European economy? The National Board of Trade has gathered the economic research on the subject.

    The development of the free movements of goods, services, capital and persons since the launch of the single market in the early 1990s, are presented in one chapter each. The study concludes with how this, in turn, has affected European economic integration and growth.

    This report is built upon our underlying literature review Economic Effects of the European Single Market – Review of the Empirical Literature.

  10. May 2015 | Publications | English

    Online Trade, Offline Rules

    A Review of Barriers to e-commerce in the EU

    Claims about the borderless nature of the internet are only true to a certain extent. Statistics on business-to-consumer e-commerce in Europe for example, show that the Digital Single Market is far from being achieved – the EU is still fragmented into 28 online markets.

    In this report, The National Board of Trade maps out legal barriers affecting e-commerce in the EU, providing an inventory of rules, both national and EU-wide, that restrict online trade. It covers traditional forms of e-commerce affected by a fragmented regulatory framework (from consumer rules to VAT). It also draws attention to the lack of adaptation of the current rules on e-commerce with regards especially to recent technological and business developments.

  11. April 2015 | Publications | Svenska

    Global Value Chains and Trade Negotiations

    The role of global value chains (GVCs) in international trade has been analyzed thoroughly in recent years by international institutions and in the academic literature. Rather than goods and services being produced from start to finish within one country, production processes nowadays span many countries.

    One issue that has not yet been discussed in depth, however, is whether the changing nature of trade could affect trade negotiations. The purpose of this report is to stimulate such a discussion by analysing how the growth of GVCs influences the political economy of trade negotiations.

National Board of Trade, P.O. Box 6803, SE-113 86 Stockholm. 
Visiting Address: Drottninggatan 89. 
Phone: +46 8 690 48 00     Fax: +46 8 30 67 59

E-mail: kommersk...@kommers.se

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