On this page you find the latest reports from the National Board of Trade:
In this report, the National Board of Trade analyzes the potential policy implications of global value chains in the context of TTIP. We also use recently published value-added trade data that indicate that the US market is more important for both Sweden and the EU as a whole than previously thought. The valueadded statistical analysis moreover reveals that services play a dominant role in Swedish and EU exports to the US.
The discussion about global value chains focuses primarily on goods production. However, more and more services are broken up into different tasks and spread internationally. Services are becoming global value chains in their own right. The Swedish video game Minecraft is an example of a global services value chain. The game is produced by Mojang in Stockholm and is sold digitally all over the world. The production and sale of Minecraft constitutes a global service value chain, where different aspects are conducted by operators in various countries. This report maps the global value chain of Minecraft. It also looks at the Swedish video game sector to exemplify how different companies set up their services value chains. Finally, the report discusses trade policy implications of these services value chains.
The report discusses the role of services in global value chains. Services are indispensable in all global value chains (GVCs) . GVCs depend on enabling services for their existence and functioning. Pure services value chains with a global remit are also increasingly being created. This report aims to link the policy discussions on services in GVCs to the Board’s previous work on the servicification of manufacturing companies. Those companies are increasingly buying, producing, selling and exporting services, thus blurring the line between goods and services companies. In this publication, we discuss how the policy conclusions from the Board’s studies on servicification are also relevant in the GVC context.
In this study the National Board of Trade analyses potential economic effects from a free trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and the US, with a particular focus on the effects on Sweden. The analysis is based on an economic simulation model over the world economy.
The results from the simulation indicate positive effects on trade and national income in both EU and the US. In particular, the results suggest an important increase in the bilateral trade between the EU and the US. Since import tariff levels in general are low between the two areas, the largest estimated gains from the simulation derive from reducing costs that arise because of differences in rules and standards in the EU and the US, so called non-tariff barriers (NTBs).
The paper explores the relationship between the EU internal market and external trade policies. Improved policy coherence between internal and external policies, providing for increased economic exchange with third countries, can contribute to more favourable conditions for EU businesses and in the long run to a more competitive European economy.
A longer version of the paper was prepared for and presented at a seminar organised by the European Commission on January 2012. Download the extended version of the paper (PDF)
Manufacturing firms increasingly use, produce and sell services. The “servicification” of manufacturing is important for firms’ competitiveness. This report describes these changes in the economy, focusing on Sweden, and discusses the implications for trade and trade policy. The main conclusion is that trade policy needs to focus on “goods and services”, rather than “goods or services”, as is still often the case.
The internet and e-commerce are creating new opportunities for international trade. The geographic distance between buyer and seller is becoming less important, and companies can now reach consumers in foreign markets in ways that were previously impossible. However, as e-commerce grows and creates new opportunities, new trade barriers are also appearing.
In this report, the Swedish National Board of Trade has mapped the barriers that companies encounter in e-commerce outside the EU. The study is based on interviews with Swedish companies, and identifies the barriers they encounter in their e-commerce business in countries outside the EU. This includes both barriers that are specific to e-commerce and barriers that are the same as for traditional trade. At the same time, some of these barriers (such as customs duty) are particularly onerous for e-traders.
In this report the National Board of Trade presents areas on the EU's internal market where the free movement can be improved. The Board's assessment is that further measures within these areas would lead to a more integrated and better functioning internal market.
The measures that are proposed, and which are discussed in the report, stretch across different areas and sectors and differ in terms of nature of the problem and the actors that could possibly solve it. The proposals may involve existing EU provisions that need to be correctly applied by the authorities in the Member States, but they might also relate to the need to clarify or change existing EU legislation, or enact new legislation.
How Borderless is the Cloud? An introduction to cloud computing
The number of services available over the internet via "the Cloud" is increasing. Cloud services offer companies new service solutions primarily in administration and IT. A new form of trade in services is created. At the same time, existing rules can hamper trade when large amounts of data pass national borders. The formulation of laws, differences between legal systems and in some cases uncertainty regarding which legal system is applicable can create problems. The Swedish National Board of Trade has produced an introduction to cloud services in international trade.
Sweden's Work with SPS-related Export Barriers – A guide for Swedish Embassies on exports of processed food and agricultural products
This guide briefly describes how Swedish ministries and agencies are working together to solve problems that Swedish exporters face in countries outside the EU, due to the design or implementation of legislation on food safety or animal and plant health in these countries. In the guide it is also discussed what the staff at Swedish embassies abroad can do to help solve these export problems.
Do EU Producers and the EU Economy Really Benefit from Anti-Dumping Policy?
This paper examines the effects of the European Union (EU) anti-dumping duties in order to assess their effectiveness and efficiency. The results suggest that EU anti-dumping duties do provide some protection for EU producers; however, the level of this protection is moderate. Those who gain most from the duties that have been introduced are, instead, the producers in third countries who are not subject to anti-dumping duties.
Furthermore, the study shows that anti-dumping protection comes at rather a high price for users and consumers in the EU. Our calculations suggest that for every one euro gained in the protected sector, users and consumers pay, on average, 4.5 euros more as a result of higher prices and duties.
Global Value Chains in EU Anti-Dumping Practice
Global value chains have made trade in intermediate goods an increasingly important part of manufacturing in the EU. Despite this, more than two thirds of the EU's anti-dumping measures are aimed at intermediate goods. This report examines EU anti-dumping policy with regard to its impact on users of goods that are subject to anti-dumping measures. In particular, this is done in light of the fact that the interest of industrial users has not once influenced the outcome of an anti-dumping proceeding (at least since 1998).
Possible Effects of the Services Directive
This report analyses the economic effects of the Services Directive. The Services Directive has been in force since 2010 and is designed to facilitate services trade by removing unnecessary and discriminating rules and simplifying remaining rules in the EU Internal Market. We examine four services categories and estimate that trade in these services could increase by up to 50 percent if three regulations were deregulated according to the Services Directive’s ambition.
Business Reality and Trade Policy – Closing the Gap
In a new report by the National Board of Trade, global value chains are analyzed in relation to trade policy. We note, for example, that global value chains have made EU rules of origin increasingly out of touch with the world in which businesses operate. The EU also continues to charge import duties on goods that serve as inputs to the EU's own industry. With such a trade policy the EU shoots itself in the foot by increasing costs and reducing the competitiveness of European manufacturers.
Dumping or Competition?
The paper identifies that “dumping” according to the WTO definition is taking place within the EU, and that this intra-EU “dumping” is considered as a case of nor¬mal competition, as no remedies are taken. It is claimed that the EU anti-dumping regulation must be revised with regard to several aspects if the objective is to establish efficient competition. In the absence of a reformed anti-dumping regulation, the anti-dumping measures will only contribute to unfair competition where the EU industry will be protected to the detriment of the European consumers. The full version of the paper is available in the report Paving the Way for Unfair Competition: The Imposition of Anti-Dumping Duties on Ceramic Tiles from China.
Anti-Dumping or Unjustified Protection?
The paper analyzes the imposition of EU anti-dumping duties on imports of ceramic tiles from China from a critical perspective. It is claimed that the antidumping measures on ceramic tiles from China are inappropriate. It is not an obvious case of dumping, it is not an obvious case of injury, and the injury that is claimed is most likely not caused by the alleged “dumping”. Accordingly, it is difficult to identify causality. In addition, it is difficult to argue that it would be in the EU interest to impose the antidumping measures.The full version of the paper is available in the report Paving the Way for Unfair Competition: The Imposition of Anti-Dumping Duties on Ceramic Tiles from China.
Paving the Way for Unfair Competition: The Imposition of EU Anti-Dumping Duties on Ceramic Tiles from China
The report analyzes the imposition of EU anti-dumping duties on imports of ceramic tiles from China from a critical perspective. The analysis argues that the EU anti-dumping regulation must be revised with regard to several aspects if the objective is to establish efficient competition. In the absence of a reformed anti-dumping regulation, the anti-dumping measures will only contribute to unfair competition where the EU industry will be protected to the detriment of the European consumers. The report is also available in the shorter versions Anti-Dumping or Unjustified Protection? and Dumping or Competition?
Cross-border Public Procurement: An EU Perspective
The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the current state of the regulatory and economic development in cross-border procurement. The nature of cross-border procurement is illustrated with two examples from public services: the first from a hospital and the second from an underground system. For this purpose, the first section elaborates on the concept of cross-border procurement, outlines the international disciplines on public procurement and studies some of the existing literature on the economic significance of cross-border procurement. The second section contains our two case studies.
2011:2 Survey of e-commerce barriers within the EU
According to the Eurobarometer, 33% of consumers purchase products online within the EU, but only 7% do this across borders. There are several reasons for this level of fragmentation in the market, such as a low level of confidence in the Internet, a low level of broadband provision, deficient interoperability, cultural differences (with regard to language, payment methods, customer behaviour patterns) and barriers of a legal nature. In this report, the Board has focused on the last category. We highlight examples that demonstrate the legal barriers that companies face when they wish to expand their operations into other EU countries.
What are the Barriers to Sweden's Foreign Trade? An Analysis of an Interview Survey of Swedish Companies
On behalf of the National Board of Trade, Statistics Sweden has interviewed a representative selection of Swedish companies. These interviews were conducted in order to survey the problems that companies in various industries and size ranges encounter in their trade with other EU countries and countries outside the EU, including the companies’ own views of which markets and subject areas should be emphasised in future negotiations. The survey also charts the companies’ use of, and ambitions for, direct measures to promote trade. In this report, we will present the summary and analysis of the responses to different parts of the company survey.
Securing High Investment Protection for EU Investors: A Review of EU Member States’ Model BITs
The purpose of bilateral investment agreements (BITs) is to protect and promote investments by creating a stable and predictable legal investment environment. Stable and predictable conditions are key to investment decisions. Thus, the future of European BITs is central to companies investing abroad. In this report, the National Board of Trade discusses what elements, in EU member states’ model BITs, define a high or a low level of investment protection. These levels are also compared with the protection offered in BITs in general.
2010:6 Made in Sweden? A new perspective on the relationship between Sweden’s exports and imports
A large part of Swedish exports actually consists of imported goods and services. Swedish exports is therefore “less Swedish” than one might think. The study provides figures for the import content of Swedish exports and discuss this phenomena from several angles, including where the input goods originate from and to what extent tariffs complicates modern supply chains. It also claims that services constitute a larger share of exports than normally thought and discusses how much value Sweden actually captures from its exports.
2010:5 Practical Aspects of Border Carbon Adjustment Measures: Using a Trade Facilitation Perspective to Assess Trade Costs
Border carbon adjustment (BCA) measures are being discussed as a response to concerns regarding carbon leakage and competitiveness in a number of OECD countries, although no country has implemented these types of BCA measures yet. This analysis aims to complement the studies done on legal and economic issues with a discussion on the practical challenges and costs relating to the different ways a BCA could be constructed. The objective is to shed light on the costs a BCA could bring to the private and public sector in the exporting and importing country.
2010:4 e-invoicing in Cross-border Trade
The transition from paper invoices to e-invoices is an example of how new technology can improve and rationalise previous manual and lengthy procedures. The purpose of the study is to give a description of precisely what the primary barriers are to increased cross-border use of e-invoices. An increased use of e-invoices should facilitate international trade and simplify a process that currently requires many manual and repetitive actions.
2010:3 Mutual recognition of AEO programmes: Supply chain security and trade facilitation – progress report fall 2010
Coordination of the programmes for Authorized Economic Operators (AEO) has been initiated but it is a slow process is. This is a good summary of the Swedish National Board of Trade study entitled:” Mutual recognition of AEO programmes Supply chain security and trade facilitation– progress report fall 2010”. The study is a follow-up of previous reports on the subject of supply chain security.
2010:2 At Your Service: The Importance of Services for Manufacturing Companies and Possible Trade Policy Implications
This paper starts by briefly discussing the increased importance of services before the case study of Sandvik Tooling and its level of “servicification”. Secondly, the paper discusses the possible effects of restrictions on services and how trade policy measures can help companies. Finally, we draw some conclusions from a trade policy perspective.
2010:1 Servicification of Swedish Manufacturing
The rise in the economic importance of services and services trade needs to be better understood as well as implications for trade policy. Therefore, we analyse the increasing inter-linkage between goods and services, both in production and trade. We find that Swedish manufacturing has been servicified.